Saturday, June 20, 2020

Culture and Tension in Less Than Zero - Literature Essay Samples

Tension between a protagonist and the society in which he lives is an element of storytelling which can be found in many texts across many millennia. The story of Jesus Christs crucifixion is a particularly notable example, though the great novels of 19th century realism also pit well-defined individuals against entire cultures. Less than Zero by Bret Easton Ellis is a latter-day example of such a text; Clay, its narrator and protagonist, shows persistent disaffection and apathy throughout the novel, retreating to pharmaceutical solutions, or alcohol, to manage his feelings and retain a place in society. This essay intends to discuss the ways in which that tension is displayed in Less Than Zero, including examination of Clays relationships with his parents, friends, siblings, and with the wider world around him. Perhaps the most salient point with which to start is Clays admission on page 140 that he wonders if â€Å"[he] look[s] exactly like them† (Ellis, p. 140, 1985). Almos t every man in this novel is described as being blond, tan and thin, and Clay too fits those descriptors perfectly. So a big part of the tension between Clay and the society in which he lives is that he looks exactly like all the other men, and struggles to find a coherent identity (though the causative relationship between the two is unclear). His concession of this point, however, comes long after the beginning of the novel, and it is heavily undermined by what he does next: â€Å"[he tries] to forget about it and get[s] a drink and look[s] around the living room† (Ellis, p. 140, 1985). This very brief window into Clays self-perception, vis à   vis his lack of individualism within society, unsettles him and he turns to alcohol to displace this idea. It is important to remember that Clay is coming back to Los Angeles after several months away, and from the very beginning of the novel, his perspective seems to have been altered by this; so Clays almost solipsistic thought pr ovides further tension between himself and society. Blairs statement that â€Å"people are afraid to merge on freeways in Los Angeles† (Ellis, p.1, 1985) disturbs Clay because it implies that he wont be able to merge back in with his old friends and his old life. This thought occurs to Clay several more times throughout the story, and becomes a leitmotif, along with the billboard proclaiming â€Å"Disappear Here† (Ellis, p.30 1985). This billboard – which disturbs Clay as greatly as the afraid to merge statement throughout the novel – echoes Clays realization that he looks like everyone else, and therefore could disappear very easily into a crowd; once again, Clay seems to be subconsciously aware (and, indeed, afraid) of this whitewashing of individuality. While the uncomfortable truth of the afraid to merge idea could, arguably, be written off as simply Blairs opinion, the billboard inarguably represents society; for Clay, it is a large and blatant remin der of the vacuousness and selfishness of the culture in which he grew up, and apart from which he now feels. In addition, Clay observes that â€Å"its probably an ad for some resort† (Ellis, p.30, 1985); that it is (likely) an ad which so effectively disturbs Clay echoes the lack of boundaries between advertisements and genuine cultural elements (i.e. music videos), on 1980s MTV. This is another conspicuous element of culture present in the novel. MTV, which at the time showed music videos back-to-back and little else except advertisements and brief comments from veejays. At the time, it was an integral part of many young peoples lives and television watching habits, and it is repeatedly mentioned in the novel. As put by Sonia Baelo-Allue in Bret Easton Elliss Controversial Fiction: Between High and Low Culture, â€Å"the world of MTV and songs is especially relevant in the novel since songs constitute the only means of communication for Clays friends this is also the language of the narration† (Baelo-Allue, p.172, 2011). As Baelo-Allue states, the narration of the novel as well as all the interactions between Clay and his friends are written in a flowing, endless style which evokes that of MTV. Clay, for example, writes: â€Å"I turn on MTV and tell myself I could get over it and go to sleep if I had some Valium and then I think about Muriel and feel a little sick as the videos begin to flash by† (Ellis p.4 1985). Here, Clay seems to be turning to MTV as a type of replacement drug, but from his tone it is clear that it is not working (even though his run-on sentences mirror the structure of MTVs programming). The tension here comes from the fact that others seem to be able to turn to it in the same way and find the entertainment which Clay seeks; Trents maid on page 44, the boy on the couch during the party in Malibu on page 140, and many other examples. Clay, on the other hand, more than once â€Å"turn[s] on MTV and turn[s] off the sound† (Ellis, p.62, 1985). Clay is unable to engage fully with this important cultural influence, like his friends (although often, people are shown to be high on some drug or other before watching it), and this underlines the tension between Clay and society; he cannot relate to his friends through it, nor can he relate to society in general, so this further fuels his disaffection. Similarly, while the characters are watching the snuff film towards the end of the novel, Clay is the only one to leave when the true nature of the movie becomes clear; indeed, Trent becomes aroused when watching it and even, when the verisimilitude of the tape is questioned, â€Å"defensively† (Ellis, p.142, 1985) and â€Å"hopefully† (Ellis, p.143, 1985) declares that it was real, while it is quite clear that Clay would rather believe that it wasnt. In Beyond Narcissism in American Culture of the 1980s, by Steve Barnett and JoAnn Magdoff, it is said that â€Å"when perspectives shift, a moral order, or even a coherent sense of right and wrong, clustering around fixed underpinnings, becomes implausible† (Barnett Magdoff, p.419, 1986). Clays perspective having been altered by his time away at college, he no longer exists within the same moral framework as his friends, which serves only to further distance him from them. One further point to consider here is that television of the 1980s wholly exemplifies a binary, black and white view of morality, and the viewer is always given a sense of completion when the bad guys are caught by the good guys (Barnett Magdoff, p.417, 1986), but without any self-awareness regarding the relativistic nature of morality. Clays life, however, is told in a series of morally neutral vignettes in which it is impossible to get any resolution (as the storytelling reflects the endless quality of MTVs presentation at the time), and â€Å"bad† things such as Rips abduction of a 12 year old girl go unpunished. So the tension between Clay and society is ratcheted up, since even his own social circle doesnt share his viewpoint, and this is brought into sharp relief towards the end of the novel, when Rip and Spin imprison a 12 year old girl and, along with Trent, they rape and abuse her. Although Clay leaves and is therefore not privy to those crimes, the imagery remaining in his head as he prepares to leave Los Angeles is brutal and uncompromising: â€Å"The images I had were of people being driven mad by living in the city. Images of parents who were so hungry and unfulfilled that they ate their own children† (Ellis, p.195, 1985). This last image is a useful one when considering Clays social relationships, since Clays family structure influences the tension between him and society. Firstly, his parents are divorced (and although this is not unusual among his friends, it is shown much more openly with Clay), and he admits regarding his sisters that he is unsure of their ages, and nor can he differentiate between them. His father seems to be on-hand for lending money but otherwise completely unavailable. Approaching Christmas in the novel, Clay, his mother and his sisters go Christmas shopping and his sisters â€Å"have used [their] Fathers charge account to buy him something† (Ellis, p.15, 1985). This is a small example of the corruption of traditional family practices in Clays family; further incidents happen when Clay goes to meet his father for lunch: he is left to wait for half an hour â€Å"while [his father] is in some meeting and then [he] asks me why Im late† (Ellis, p. 33, 1985), and then , when approached by several business colleagues at lunch, Clay is â€Å"introduced only as my son† (Ellis, p.33, 1985). Clay is forced to take on a practically two-dimensional image in his fathers colleagues eyes; a person of no importance for whom such basic information such as a name is of no importance. Furthermore, in the conversation following this, Clays father observes that Clay is very thin and pale, and Clays truthful answer of â€Å"its the drugs† (Ellis, p. 35, 1985) isnt heard by his father, whose concern over Clays weight and pallor evaporates immediately despite being symptoms of excessive drug abuse. His mother, too, has similar values; she overhears a conversation between Clay and his two sisters in which they argue over whether or not they have stolen cocaine from his closet. Only when the song Teenage Enema Nurses in Bondage starts to play does Clays mother intervene and say something. It is clear that this laissez-faire parenting style has affected Clays two sisters as well, the youngest of whom claims â€Å"I can get my own cocaine† (Ellis, p.17, 1985). It is only natural that this kind of under-parenting would inadequately prepare children for the world, and very well might be the reason that Clay cant name his sisters and cant tell them apart. So this is the foundation upon which the tension between Clay and society is, at least partly, based, and the wellspring from which it arises. The tension between Clay and society is based on multiple things: his dysfunctional family relationship, his dysfunctional friendships, and his poor choice of friends, many of whom (as proven by the abduction, imprisonment and rape of a 12 year old girl) seem to have taken the abandon with which they consume drugs and have sex, and let it corrupt their core moral reasoning. Clay, on the other hand, has a glimmer of self-awareness, having been outside the Los Angeles lifestyle for a few months. Thus, Clays attempts to reintroduce himself to a society he voluntarily left are front and center in Less Than Zero: a title which, itself, has some light to shed on Clays self-image and, to extrapolate, Clays view of the vacuous and vapid world of 1980s Los Angeles. References: Baelo-Allue, S. 2011. Bret Easton Elliss Controversial Fiction: Writing Between High and Low Culture. Continuum International Publishing Group. New York.Ellis, B.E. 2011 (1985). Less Than Zero. Simon Schuster, New York.Barnett, S. Magdoff, J. 1986. Beyond Narcissism in American Culture of the 1980s. Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Nov., 1986), pp. 413-424. Wiley, US.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Top Tips to Help You Write a College Term Paper

Top Tips to Help You Write a College Term PaperIf you are enrolled in a degree program at an accredited college or university, then the most likely scenario is that you are writing a college term paper. After all, the college term paper is considered the standard form of a college term paper. It is expected that you write a term paper when you receive your diploma or degree.Writing a college term paper is usually a tedious task. It is not as easy as writing a normal college term paper. Writing a college term paper will normally require you to produce a whole new set of vocabulary and concepts. You will also need to add and modify concepts that are common in most college classes.Writing a college term paper takes practice and patience. A good writing routine will ensure that you write a regular college term paper without any lapse in between. Here are some tips to help you make it easy to write a college term paper:First, know your topic: It is important to first decide what college t erm paper you would like to write. After all, this will be the topic for your paper. This will also determine the nature of your subject matter.Second, choose the term paper topic: After deciding on the topic of your term paper, next, decide on the format of your paper. You may have to write a two-page document or you may need to get extra papers to keep in a binder. You may even want to use collators to keep your paper together for easier reading.Third, write your term paper: After choosing the topic and the format, you must first begin to actually write your term paper. It is important to write a lot of pages if you want your paper to be impressive. To start with, take a lot of notes. This will allow you to have great ideas and revise these ideas during the entire process.Lastly, take care of the format: Once you have decided on the topic and the format, you must organize your paper well. Make sure that you put all your concepts on paper in order to make it easy to read. This will make the overall task easier and help you speed up.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Ohio University Acceptance Rate, SAT/ACT Scores, GPA

Ohio University is a public research university with an acceptance rate of 78%. Established in 1804 and located in Athens, Ohio, OU is the oldest public university in Ohio and one of the oldest in the country. The university has a 17-to-1  student / faculty ratio  and an average class size of 29. The E.W. Scripps School of Journalism wins high marks for its quality, and its programs are extremely popular among undergraduates. In athletics, the OU Bobcats compete in the NCAA Division I  Mid-American Conference. Considering applying to Ohio University? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Ohio University had an acceptance rate of 78%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 78 students were admitted, making Ohio Universitys admissions process somewhat competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 23,385 Percent Admitted 78% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 22% SAT Scores and Requirements Ohio University requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 21% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 540 640 Math 530 630 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of Ohio Universitys admitted students fall within the top 35% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Ohio University scored between 540 and 640, while 25% scored below 540 and 25% scored above 640. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 530 and 630, while 25% scored below 530 and 25% scored above 630. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1270 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at Ohio University. Requirements Ohio University recommends, but does not require, the SAT writing section. Note that Ohio University does not superscore SAT results; your highest composite SAT score will be considered. ACT Scores and Requirements Ohio University requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 91% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 20 26 Math 20 26 Composite 21 26 This admissions data tells us that most of Ohio Universitys admitted students fall within the top 42% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Ohio University received a composite ACT score between 21 and 26, while 25% scored above 26 and 25% scored below 21. Requirements Note that Ohio University does not superscore ACT results; your highest composite ACT score will be considered. OU recommends, but does not require, the ACT writing section. GPA In 2018, the average high school GPA for Ohio Universitys incoming freshmen class was 3.54, and 57% of incoming students had average GPAs of 3.5 and above. These results suggest that most successful applicants to Ohio University have primarily high B grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph Ohio University Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Ohio University. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in  with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Ohio University, which accepts just over three-quarters of applicants, has a somewhat selective admissions process. Admissions are based primarily on academic preparation in rigorous coursework  that includes four units of English and math; three units of natural science and social studies; two units of foreign language; one unit of visual or performing arts; and four units of other electives. OU reviews each application holistically considering strength of curriculum, performance in curriculum, class rank, GPA, and SAT/ACT scores. Note that some programs at Ohio University have more selective admissions. Applicants may submit optional materials such as application essays (required for honor program and some majors), letters of recommendation, resumes, lists of extracurricular activities, portfolios, or samples of work to supplement their application. Students with particularly compelling stories or achievements can still receive serious consideration even if their grades and scores are outside of Ohio Universitys average range. In the graph above, the blue and green dots represent students accepted to Ohio University. Successful applicants typically have high school averages of B or better, combined SAT scores of 1000 or higher, and ACT composite scores of 20 or better. If You Like Ohio University, You May Also Like These Schools Kent State UniversityUniversity of ToledoUniversity of CincinnatiBowling Green State UniversityOhio State UniversityUniversity of AkronUniversity of DaytonUniversity of Kentucky All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Ohio University Undergraduate Admissions Office. Ohio University Acceptance Rate, SAT/ACT Scores, GPA Ohio University is a public research university with an acceptance rate of 78%. Established in 1804 and located in Athens, Ohio, OU is the oldest public university in Ohio and one of the oldest in the country. The university has a 17-to-1  student / faculty ratio  and an average class size of 29. The E.W. Scripps School of Journalism wins high marks for its quality, and its programs are extremely popular among undergraduates. In athletics, the OU Bobcats compete in the NCAA Division I  Mid-American Conference. Considering applying to Ohio University? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Ohio University had an acceptance rate of 78%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 78 students were admitted, making Ohio Universitys admissions process somewhat competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 23,385 Percent Admitted 78% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 22% SAT Scores and Requirements Ohio University requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 21% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 540 640 Math 530 630 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of Ohio Universitys admitted students fall within the top 35% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Ohio University scored between 540 and 640, while 25% scored below 540 and 25% scored above 640. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 530 and 630, while 25% scored below 530 and 25% scored above 630. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1270 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at Ohio University. Requirements Ohio University recommends, but does not require, the SAT writing section. Note that Ohio University does not superscore SAT results; your highest composite SAT score will be considered. ACT Scores and Requirements Ohio University requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 91% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 20 26 Math 20 26 Composite 21 26 This admissions data tells us that most of Ohio Universitys admitted students fall within the top 42% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Ohio University received a composite ACT score between 21 and 26, while 25% scored above 26 and 25% scored below 21. Requirements Note that Ohio University does not superscore ACT results; your highest composite ACT score will be considered. OU recommends, but does not require, the ACT writing section. GPA In 2018, the average high school GPA for Ohio Universitys incoming freshmen class was 3.54, and 57% of incoming students had average GPAs of 3.5 and above. These results suggest that most successful applicants to Ohio University have primarily high B grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph Ohio University Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Ohio University. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in  with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Ohio University, which accepts just over three-quarters of applicants, has a somewhat selective admissions process. Admissions are based primarily on academic preparation in rigorous coursework  that includes four units of English and math; three units of natural science and social studies; two units of foreign language; one unit of visual or performing arts; and four units of other electives. OU reviews each application holistically considering strength of curriculum, performance in curriculum, class rank, GPA, and SAT/ACT scores. Note that some programs at Ohio University have more selective admissions. Applicants may submit optional materials such as application essays (required for honor program and some majors), letters of recommendation, resumes, lists of extracurricular activities, portfolios, or samples of work to supplement their application. Students with particularly compelling stories or achievements can still receive serious consideration even if their grades and scores are outside of Ohio Universitys average range. In the graph above, the blue and green dots represent students accepted to Ohio University. Successful applicants typically have high school averages of B or better, combined SAT scores of 1000 or higher, and ACT composite scores of 20 or better. If You Like Ohio University, You May Also Like These Schools Kent State UniversityUniversity of ToledoUniversity of CincinnatiBowling Green State UniversityOhio State UniversityUniversity of AkronUniversity of DaytonUniversity of Kentucky All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Ohio University Undergraduate Admissions Office.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Analysis Of The Book The Martian Chronicles - 1391 Words

Andy Tsai 9/26/15 Period 1 Major Works Data Sheet Title of the Work: The Martian Chronicles Author: Ray Bradbury Date of Publication: 1950 Genre: Novel Historical Information: The novel had taken place on the planet Mars. During the 1700s, telescopes were beginning to get popular, and more common used by astrologists to observer planets, such as mars. People from Earth believed that all the planets were inhabited by intelligent living things like humans. In the 1800’s people were certain there was intelligent life on Mars because Schiaparelli, an astronomer who was studying the surface of mars, called them â€Å"canali†. People had misinterpreted this and thought there were intelligent life forms living on Mars, smart enough to make a system of canals. Plot Summary: A female Martian begins to dream about people that were different from them. These people from her dream land on the planet Mars but die shortly after they landed on the red planet. On the second expedition, the captain and his crew explored around Mars and discovers houses and towns, but all they wanted was to get a little bit of fame and recognition for traveling from the third planet to the fourth. Due to bragging about it, the Martians thought they’ve gone insane and they’re hallucinating others to trying to believe them. The psychologist concludes that they’ve gone insane and shoots the captain and his crewmates, but thinks they’ve transferred their insanity to him, so he kills himself as well. On the thirdShow MoreRelatedCold War in the Eyes of Ray Bradbury1689 Words   |  7 PagesRay Bradbury, from small town America (Waukegan, Illinois), wrote two very distinctly different novels in the early Cold War era. The first was The Martian Chronicles (1950) know for its â€Å"collection† of short stories that, by name, implies a broad historical rather than a primarily individual account and Fahrenheit 451 (1953), which centers on Guy Montag. The thematic similarities of Mars coupled with the state of the American mindset during the Cold War era entwine the two novels on the surfaceRead MoreEssay on Propoganda, Advocacy and Yellow Journalism1938 Words   |  8 PagesThe Martians are coming. American jobs taken by Illegal Immigrants. USDA needs to enforce stricter regulations on cattle feed. Each headline could be found in todays news. When putting together a story, the interpretation of facts depends on how the facts are presented or the assumptions made by the journalist. It would be inaccurate to suggest or imply that the press and the media are always responsible and truthful. After all, stories with sensational headlines or titles that greatly stirRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 PagesDowden This book Logical Reasoning by Bradley H. Dowden is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. That is, you are free to share, copy, distribute, store, and transmit all or any part of the work under the following conditions: (1) Attribution You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author, namely by citing his name, the book title, and the relevant page numbers (but not in any way that suggests that the book Logical Reasoning

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Economics Test 1 Answers - 1997 Words

------------------------------------------------- Review Assessment: Chapter 1 Quiz (Due January 29, 2012) Status | Completed | Score | 75 out of 100 points | Instructions | | | Question 1 | 0 out of 2 points | | The following multiple-choice question requires critical thinking about In the News and World View articles that appeared in the text. One World View article is titled Food Shortages Plague N. Korea. On a production-possibilities curve between private and public goods, a decrease in military spending in an effort to increase food production could be represented as: | | | | | | Feedback: | The movement represents resources being pulled from one industry and allocated into the other industry.†¦show more content†¦| | | | | Question 22 | 2 out of 2 points | | If Korea is currently producing at efficiency, and it proceeds to increase the size of its military, then, as long as nothing else changes, its: | | | | | | Feedback: | There is a tradeoff; to get more of one good, other goods must be given up. | | | | | Question 23 | 2 out of 2 points | | When an economy is producing efficiently it is: | | | | | | Feedback: | This would be represented by being on the production-possibilities curve. | | | | | Question 24 | 0 out of 2 points | | Which of the following is true when an economy is producing efficiently? | | | | | | Feedback: | Being inside the production-possibilities curve is inefficient and being on it is efficient. | | | | | Question 25 | 1 out of 1 points | | If an economy is producing inside the production-possibilities curve, then: | | | | | | Feedback: | No goods must be given up to move from an inefficient to an efficient level of production. | | | | | Question 26 | 2 out of 2 points | | A technological advance would best be represented by: | | | | | | Feedback: | The shift would move the production-possibilities curve away from the origin, so that we can get more of both goods. | | | | | Question 27 | 2 out of 2 pointsShow MoreRelatedEssay about Marginal Cost and Correct Answer1404 Words   |  6 PagesQuestion 1 5 out of 5 points Economic profit is defined as the difference between revenue and ____. 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My Overall Growth Within My First Semester Essay - 1543 Words

This paper will address my overall growth within my first semester. The experience I have encountered at Shippensburg has been so unreal. Everyday I think to myself â€Å"like wow I’m really in college I was just in high school†. I remember my first day at Shippensburg like it was yesterday the anxiety, the anxiousness all of it. I’ve been waiting to go to college since my first day of school and that time finally came. The week of me packing all my stuff and going school shopping all I could think about is how â€Å"free† I’ll finally be and I’ll finally be on my way to learning about my future career. I knew college would be fun and for my expectations to be fulfilled. I always thought college would be how it would be when I would watching certain Tv shows and movies about it. It was false advertising to me because college is honestly what you make it. The day I moved onto campus I felt a new chapter opening in my life. 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Research Methodologies

Question: Write a report about the "effect of teacher accents while teaching early grades at school". Answer: Introduction This study deals with addressing effect of teacher accents while teaching early graders at school. Teachers require access towards wide range of information for functioning well in classroom session (Weingarten Penat, 2012). Core competencies requires in various state certification standard for future analysis purpose. It is challenging task for providing excellent teacher preparation as well as ongoing professional development especially for teachers. In this research proposal, it brings out the research questions, research aims and objectives at the same. This particular assignment clearly elaborates the main importance of teaching profession in the life of early graders (Walt Potgieter, 2012). Research methodology brings out the data collection methods adopted by researchers at the time of research analysis. Background of the study First graders are those students who come to school with brimming over enthusiasm as well as excitement for learning new things. This particular age is marked in form of tremendous growth, loosing teeth as well as great emotional highs (Swearengen, 2012). These first graders make big plans and jumps into projects for not missing single thing in life. Teachers should speak in easy language and present session in pictorial form, so that early grade student feels it interesting while sitting at classroom. Teachers should have the quality of effective teaching by clear communication ways. Teachers should be able to communicate with students with maximum clarity and posses strategies for understanding in desired form. Teachers should encounter students in identifying first language or dialect for proper communication as far as possible (Supino Borer, 2012). Addition to that, it is requires understanding of linguistics that enables teachers in discoursing patterns as well as understanding aspects of culture and backgrounds. In accordance with National Association for the Education of Young Children, teachers should create enthusiasm and passion in students. They should drive for unlocking child door to learning as well as obstacles in the near future. Teachers should have extreme patience as well as humor so that students should attend the classes interestingly. They should posses learned effective skills within the young students as well as communicating with them at early graders (Ponterotto, 2012). Teachers requires in communicating with childs parents on matters relating to needs, skills as well as problems and achievements in and within both parties under undue emotions. Teachers should communicate with other teachers for getting updated information in desired way. Teachers should be able to differentiate between students coming at school. Each student has some unique personality as well as learning style that needs proper attention by students 9 Persson, 2012) . In the global society, it is essential for the teachers in preparation of multicultural classrooms with cultures, traditions as well as ethnicities. Classroom is a place whereby differences should be tolerant and adapted in form of embraced open as well as exciting learning atmosphere at the same time. Planning effective lessons by the teachers engages young students in taking creativity as a major part. It requires adapting towards lessons in individual learning styles that symbolizes flexibility largely. Irrespective of any condition, teachers should be flexible enough in handling the glitches and throw off the day. She should have the inclination in changing plans as and when required as a whole. Early childhood development teacher should be able to use creativity as well as flexibility in making day in positive form in the most appropriate way (Onwuegbuzie, Johnson Collins, 2012). Teachers require qualification that proves ability in being recruited in school. Teaching comes under service sector and therefore plays an important part in shaping life of early grade students. Early grade students should be taught the basic concepts in fair manner so that they do not face any problems in the near future. Basic concepts on the subjects taught by teachers help students rise in the upcoming future (Muijs, 2012). First graders enthusiasm for school as well as life considers as exhausting. Teaching first graders is fun, exciting as well as gives rise to joyful experiences on regular basis. Teachers should make the first graders students comes with grand ideas into manageable parts for future purpose. Effective teachers should posses sound knowledge of the subject matter. Teachers should take personal interest in teaching individual students as well as understanding their mindset at the same time. They should establish caring as well as loving and warm atmosphere for th e early graders students (Mayer Steneck, 2012). They should show enthusiasm to students and listen to their ideas as well. Teachers should conduct instructional planning as well as organizing child orientation programs. It requires building enthusiasm among students. According to survey, teachers requires passionate attitude towards handling students at schools. They require high level of patience so that they do not get angry at the mischief of students at schools. Teachers should have interest in learning and inspire students in doing so at the same time. Learning and teaching goes hand-by-hand and taken proper attention at the same time (Kumar, 2011). It is important to consider the fact that teachers should give full attention and engage time for student career development. Pictorial representation and interesting way of teaching students enables in making the classroom session an interesting place for early graders students. Research aims and objectives The main aim of the research is to bring the importance of teaching accents or characteristics at the time of teaching early graders at school (Kuada, 2012).This particular research brings out teacher characteristics while teaching students. Research Question What is the effect of teacher accents while teaching early graders at school? What are teaching characteristics requires at teaching early graders at school? How effective teaching quality helps in student development for early graders at school? Research Hypothesis H0: There is an impact of teacher accents or characteristics in teaching early grade students H1: There is no impact of teacher accents or characteristics in teaching early grade students Research Methodology This part of the research proposal will bring out the process used for collecting information as well as data in undertaking business decisions in certain ways. Research Methodology includes various publications, surveys as well as interviews as per presentation of present and historical information (Knapp, 2013). Scientivism or Positivism Positivism especially belongs to epistemology that is specified in consideration with research philosophy in the particular study on Impact of teacher accents or characteristics in teaching early grade students. Positivism research philosophy brings out the factual assumptions as well as scientific data collection methods (Knapp, 2012). It requires observation by the researchers including measurement in trusted form. Positivism studies satisfy the role as a researcher and limited largely in data collection as well as interpretation in an objective approach. Post-Positivism Post-Positivism is one of the common forms in philosophy in case of critical realism. Critical realist believes in reality independency in thinking process for future analysis purpose. It is direct contrast with subjectivist for holding to external reality for actual realist at the same time (Holden Lynch, 2012). Principles of Post-Positivism depend upon quantifiable observations as well as leading themselves in form of statistical analysis for the same. Post-Positivism philosophy generally is empirical in nature and directs towards human experience in the most appropriate way. It includes ontological view in and around world comprising ways like discrete, observable elements as well as events in events in regular ways. Post-Positivism studies help researchers in bringing independent forms (Crossan, 2013). There are no particular provisions that involve human interests in this particular study. In according to general rule, Post-Positivism studies adopt deductive approach and induct ive approach in association with philosophy phenomenon. Post-Positivism philosophy helps researchers in concentrating on facts as well as provision as per human interest. Epistemology- Post-positivist believes that human knowledge based upon unchallengeable as well as rock-solid foundations and conjectures. Human knowledge assets conjecture for further investigation purpose (Crossan, 2012). Post-Positivism is not direct form of relativism as well as retains idea of objective truth for the same. Ontology- Post positivists believe in real existence in imperfect as well as probability form for future analysis purpose. Humanism Humanism is one kind of research methods in terms of psychology. It relates studies as a whole person as well as uniqueness of an individual. Humanism is considered as psychological perspectives that emphasizes for study whole person (Columbus, 2012). These humanistic psychologist views at human behavior from observer point of view from behavior pattern. As the research was on studying the characteristics of teachers while teaching students, it requires understanding behavioral pattern of students. Critical Theory Critical theory is considered as philosophy as innovative view of society. In most of the cases, it looks for privileged people including rich, white men likewise. Critical theory in education reveals the educational system for offering best education for all people (Biddle Emmett, 2012). It mainly aims at offering better opportunities as well as understanding of innovative perspectives in way of disadvantaged members of society as a whole. Post modernism Post-modernism considers as accusations indicating clear evolution from postmodern view at the same time. Postmodern concerning epistemic foundations like positivistic sciences in way of self-possessed identities. It resists in form of dominant form in oppressive cultures for own lives (Biddle Emmett, 2011). Justification of using research methods or philosophy Researchers mainly assume Post-Positivism philosophy for their independency nature and objectivity at the same time. Independent requires maintaining minimal interaction involving research participants for carrying out research in certain way. Post-Positivism Paradigm mainly based upon facts as well as external objectives in an overall manner (Barone Eisner, 2011). Post-Positivism philosophy includes fast speed at the time of conducting research y researchers and covers wide range of situations in the near future. Research Methods Deductive Approach includes bringing out specialized concepts in the study. It aims at testing theories whereas inductive approach concerns with generations with emerging data collection methods for the same. Deductive approach mainly begins with hypothesis whereas inductive approach uses research questions for the scope of the study (Onwuegbuzie, Johnson Collins, 2012). Deductive approach emphasis upon casualty whereas inductive approach focuses on exploring new phenomena from new perspectives. In this particular study, researchers use deductive approach as it requires specific assumptions on the current study. Research Design Research Design is the study including descriptive, correlation as well as experimental and meta-analytical ways. Descriptive research helps in describing characteristics out of given population as well as phenomenon for future analysis purpose. Explanatory research design involves in describing the study by exploring new ideas as well as designs by the researchers (Onwuegbuzie, Johnson Collins, 2012). It conducts descriptive research in increasing knowledge based upon the current study in practice. Explanatory research aims at explaining connected ideas for understanding the cause and effect relationship by the researchers in an overall manner. This research requires using of descriptive research as each aspects requires detailed investigation for best possible outcomes in the future. Data Collection Methods Data Collection is considered as one of the important aspects in the research activities. Inaccurate data collection methods adversely affect resulted study as well as lead to invalid results (Barone Eisner, 2011). These methods affect evaluation process varying along with continuum. It includes quantitative as well as qualitative research methods for analysis purpose. Quantitative and Qualitative Data Collection Methods Quantitative data collection methods depends largely in on random sampling as well as structured data collection instruments in fitting diverse predetermined response categories. It helps in producing results in summarized as well as generalized form (Barone Eisner, 2011). This particular research methods concerns directly with testing hypothesis as derived from theory implications as well as estimating sizes interest phenomenon in the most appropriate way. It widely depends upon the research question for random assigning ways in various treatments. Researchers requires in collecting data on participant as well as situational characteristics for statistical control in an effective way. It generalizes ways from research participants in relation with larger population. Quantitative data collection strategies include experiments, clinical trials as well as observing and recording well-defined events. It obtains relevant data in form of management information systems. It requires admini stering questionnaires by asking closed-ended questions. It includes face-to-face interviews as well as questionnaires in the particular study. As far as quantitative data collection is concerned, researchers distributes questionnaire to 7 teachers (Biddle Emmett, 2011). It identifies the respondents response for understanding impact of teaching accents at the time of teaching early graders. Qualitative data collection methods play an important role for information evaluation in observed results as well as assessing people perceptions. Qualitative methods improve quality of survey based questionnaire evaluations. It helps in generating hypothesis evaluation for design strengthening in case of questionnaire analysis (Biddle Emmett, 2011). This particular method helps in asking open-ended questions to the respondents at the time of interview. Researchers changes data collection strategy by adding dropping techniques for future analysis purpose. Researchers rely upon heavy iterative interviews for solving particular issues as well as checking reliability data. It uses triangulation for increased credibility of findings. Researchers mostly uses multiple data collection methods for checking on the authenticity of results. It generally brings out the findings for generalizing specific population for seeking specific patterns for solving same issues. In case of qualitative dat a collection methods, researchers have asked interview questions to 5 teachers for gathering facts on viewpoint. Interview is taken from the most experienced teachers at school for gathering facts on realistic basis (Weingarten Penat, 2012). Experienced teachers spend students that are comparatively more timeserving as well as school. Teaching profession comes under service sector so teachers serve the students for bright future. At the time of research, researchers requires in using MS Excel for studying current research proposal. Accessibility Issues It is important to understand the fact that researcher faces issues at the time of conducting research. At the time of interview, teachers are not free for giving answers and time constraint reasons (Biddle Emmett, 2011). It may give rise to irritation from the side of respondents that hampers smooth research process in each possible ways. Ethical Consideration At the time of the research, researchers should maintain confidentiality of information. Data protection act will punish researchers for misusing information as far as possible (Biddle Emmett, 2011). Expected Research Outcomes With limited time constraints, researchers find it difficult to conduct in-depth analysis in the current study. Expected research outcomes requires more time for conducting proper evaluation researching single aspect in detailed ways. It lacks enough resources that requires in implementation of research methods (Onwuegbuzie, Johnson Collins, 2012). Future study should arrange for additional resources for proper functioning of research process in desired way. Extended future research should focus teacher contribution in student life for career development process in the near future. It is expected for conducting teaching survey whereby teachers are given privilege in participation and making valid point at the time of research. The government for making the teaching profession in successful form should give more emphasis (Weingarten Penat, 2012). Reference List Barone, T. Eisner, E. (2011).Arts Based Research. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. Biddle, J. Emmett, R. (2011).Research in the history of economic thought and methodology. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald. Biddle, J. Emmett, R. (2012).Research in the history of economic thought and methodology. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald. Columbus, A. (2012).Advances in psychology research. New York: Nova Science Publishers. Crossan, F. (2012). Research philosophy: towards an understanding.Nurse researcher,11(1), 46-55. Crossan, F. (2013). Research philosophy: towards an understanding.Nurse researcher,11(1), 46-55. Holden, M. T., Lynch, P. (2012). Choosing the appropriate methodology: understanding research philosophy.The marketing review,4(4), 397-409. Knapp, T. (2012).Quantitative nursing research. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Knapp, T. (2013).Quantitative nursing research. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Kuada, J. (2012) Research methodology. Kumar, R. (2011).Research methodology. Los Angeles: SAGE. Mayer, T. Steneck, N. (2012).Promoting research integrity in a global environment. Hackensack, N.J.: World Scientific. Muijs, D. (2012).Doing quantitative research in education with SPSS. London: SAGE. Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Johnson, R. B., Collins, K. M. (2012). Call for mixed analysis: A philosophical framework for combining qualitative and quantitative approaches.International journal of multiple research approaches,3(2), 114-139. Persson, J. (2012). Misconceptions of positivism and five unnecessary science theoretic mistakes they bring in their train.International journal of nursing studies,47(5), 651-661. Ponterotto, J. G. (2012). Qualitative research in counseling psychology: A primer on research paradigms and philosophy of science.Journal of counseling psychology,52(2), 126. Supino, P. Borer, J. (2012).Principles of research methodology. New York, NY: Springer. Swearengen, J. (2012).Biodefense. Boca Raton: Taylor Francis. Walt, J. L. V. D., Potgieter, F. J. (2012). Research method in education: The frame by which the picture hangs.International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches,6(3), 220-232.